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tv   Sanjay Gupta MD  CNN  December 21, 2014 4:30am-5:01am PST

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ralphael ramos. people try to pull apart this shooter's social media account to get more answers about the motive here. listen, we'll see you back here at 8:00 eastern. >> sanjay gupta, md, starts right now. welcome to the program. why is mumps going around the national hockey league? we have that story. plus, we put together the top ten health stories of 2014. some of them are going to surprise you. what do you think number one is? first, it is a race against time. what the world health organization calls one of the biggest threats to global health today. now we're not talking about ebola. we're not even talking about the flu. we're talking about common infections and what happens when we can't treat them. perhaps the biggest medical breakthrough in history was the discovery of antibiotics. that was in the late 1920s. the first as you know was penicillin. the compounds like this one remained nearly unchanged for a century.
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bacteria have mutated, adapted and become resistant. this is a growing ep depic that could send us back to the beginning to a world where we didn't have antibiotics. but it's not too late, yet. that's why research teams around the world started searching for the next generation of infection fighting drugs and finding them in some of nature's most extreme environments. a piercing blue sky, snow capped mountains, water smooth as glass, cold as ice. this is about as extreme an environment as you can find on earth. and that's exactly why we're here. above the arctic circle in the northern norway region, researchers onboard this ship are digging up the bottom of the ocean. what's in this bag has been millions of years evolving and
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adapting in extreme conditions. what's in this bag could save your life. >> if no one find new antibiotics for common infections, what will happen is we'll go back to the preant qui buy ottic age where a simple cut can turn into an infection and deadly. >> this man's lab at the university of aberdeen is businessy. busy because we're reaching a critical turning point. >> particularly in the golden era of the 1950s and 1960s, people are discovering new antibiotics almost every month. but now the most recent antibiotic licenses was discovered in the 1980s. >> while the drugs haven't changed, the bacteria have. evolving and adapting, backing resistant to current antibiotics and earning the nasty nickname
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super bugs. >> so what happened is through overuse of antibiotics over the last 30 years or so is that most bacteria that we encounter in the hospitals, for instance, have become resistant to antibiotics. that means what were once common treatments are no longer treatable using standard and yi buy ottics. >> it's not cost effective for them to search for new bacteria. it costs themmed 2dz billion to bring a new drug to the market. and the case of antibiotics, the drug is taken for a short time and can develop resistance. that's request large scale moek us moved away from antibiotics research over the past 30 years. even if big companies are looking this he keep returning to the same sources or trying to synthesize chemicals in a lab. but jasper had a different idea. in 2012, he set up a project called pharmacy funded by the european union. it brings 24 teams together with
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one goal. search extreme untapped environments to become antibiotics. >> in the past, bacteria and fun gus are the source of new antibiotics. 70% still come from nature. normally from samples from land, but now by looking at the ocean, we hope to find new life forms which give us new chemistry that may be able to treat bacterial infections. >> new chemistry is the key. it can't he resistant to a drug if they've never seen anything like it before. >> you can change the anti-body a little bit. it won't take it long to modify the defense mechanisms. >> in england, they're looking, too. he collaborate rates with his project and has some interesting ideas of his own. among them, these leaf cutter ants.
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>> that's an unusual system. theant carries on the activity. they make the anti-fungal compounds andant qui bacterial compounds. >> it's another example of nature's head start in this race against time. having the advantage of millions of years of perfecting complex structures that scientists in a lab couldn't even dream of. there is no time to waist because of how long it takes to find, develop and approve new drugs. we're talking seven, eight, nine years, possibly even a decade or more. >> we should be concerned. i don't think we should panic. it's not to say we won't have something like this next week or next year. but the problem is the long term problem that's ultimately most serious human path oogens will resistant. if you look in different places they haven't looked before, you're much more likely to find new strains making new
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compounds. so, for example, we have collaboration tw the university of chile in santiago and isolated act from the desert. so we take a sample of the desert sand and soil. it is teaming with back tear yachlt they make new antibiotics. >> it's why the pharmacy team is in the arctic, too. the possibilities seem endless. >> the bacteria work on the arctic is at a very early stage. i have a great feeling about this project. do feel we'll be successful in finding new chemicals. >> inside the organisms, they hope are new molecules with antibacterial properties that could some day make it into new drugs on pharmacy shelves. >> we think the marine organism up here adapted to the cold and dark environment. they have to adjust for very different temperatures as compared to other parts of the world. so i think that since living in
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extreme environments they have developed some extreme strategies to survive. >> after two days, the ship returns to norway. one of the world's most northern cities. at the lab, the real investigation begins. robert preserves and catalogs the marine organisms, some of which have never been seen before. the samples don't just end up in these town but also in aberdeen in jasper's lab. >> this is from norway. it has been frozen. it is sealed on site there and comes to us like this. so it is essentially what it was like on the sea floor. you have to stack the noodds in your favor. so we're going through lists of compounds. so out of 1200 bacteria we tested so far, we made like 15,000 extracts. we grow them in different ways and extract them in different
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ways. these have been tested in different ways against bacteria. we have a number that have very high activity against bacteria infections and these are followed up. >> from leaf cutter ants to sea sponges and rows of jars with preserve mad reen life, it looks like the stuff mad scientists dream about. this is the new face of antibiotics and the hopeful legacy of the pharmacy project and others like it around the world. >> the drive to do this kind of work has always been the discovery of new medicines for diseases. but secondly, it's always very exciting when you get to this stage where you're the first person to see something. you're the first person to see the bacteria and the very first person to identify the structure of a new molecule that has the potential at that moment to be treatment for a difficult disease. >> so what the next time a doctor prescribes -- antibiotic, ask yourself if you need it or not.
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it's a role we can play to slow down the resistance and give researchers time to find new ones. the outbreak of mumps is rare but it could has been anywhere. so why is this viral infection plaguing the national hockey league? that's next. my doctor told me about stelara®. it helps keep my skin clearer. with only 4 doses a year after 2 starter doses... ... stelara® helps me be in season. stelara® may lower your ability to fight infections and increase your risk of infections. some serious infections require hospitalization. before starting stelara®... ...your doctor should test for tuberculosis. stelara® may increase your risk of cancer. always tell your doctor if you have any sign of infection, have had cancer, or if you develop any new skin growths. do not take stelara® if you are allergic to stelara® or any of its ingredients. alert your doctor of new or worsening problems including headaches, seizures, confusion and vision problems- these may be signs of a rare, potentially fatal brain condition. serious allergic reactions can occur. tell your doctor if you or anyone in your house needs or has recently received a vaccine.
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there were 186,000 cases of mumps before a vaccine was developed. the vaccine reduced the numbers but for the last few months the nhl has been fighting to get a mumps outbreak under control. not something we hear about very much. we asked our reporter to stop by. she is with cnn sports, obviously. laura, how do you describe what happened here? >> this is such a weird situation. it's just all of a sudden come to the forefront and mumps is now in the spotlight. but this is something that began back in mid october. that's when there were the initial reports that came out of st. louis blues players having mumps-like symptoms. now the team never confirmed that. however, now looking back on it, it kind of seems likely. now from that time in mid-october, more players throughout the league, they began to sit out of games with the mumps-like symptoms. by mid-november, they realized there may be a problem here.
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they sent out a memo. the league senting out a memo that, is standard procedure in the nhl. this dough this when this there are things like flut going around. they recommend dressing room changes, bench behavior changes, a buvennch of things. now last week sidney crosby, he was at a team skate. his face was absolutely swollen. you just knew there was something wrong with him. he was around his teammates. he was around reporters. and with all of this mumps thing going on in the background, he still denied and so did the team that he did in fact have mumps. it was only days later that crosby was confirmed to have mumps. and that is when he was put in isolation. i have a question for you when it come to these vaccines. we're talking about players here that are so healthy. they are, you know, so well conditioned. why are these players the ones getting sick despite these
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vaccines? >> that's a great question. you know, there are a couple things to keep nind. mumps is a contagious disease. and while there are vaccines out there, typically as you may know, laur yashgs people get the vaccine around 1 year of age. then they may get a booster shot around 4 years of age. i understand sidney crosby had even more relatively recent shot because he was going to sochi for olympics. he got another shot. but they're not 100% effective. that is part of the issue. there is not 100% effective. but also the culture, you spread this by close bodily contact. professional athletics teams have. that oftentimes they're sharing utensils. i remember when i played hockey in michigan, you squirt water bottles out of your mouth. that can be a source. you have a culture there like a university culture. many other cultures where people are closely clustered. if one person gets mumps, several people can get mumps. it's not to say the vaccines
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don't work, it is just sort of the exact situation where this virus can spread. >> he was -- sidney crosby was in isolation for a few days. is that all you can do if you're sick with the mumps? is there anything else? >> you know, you sort of treat the symptoms with these types of things. i don't know if you ever had chicken pox but it's a virus that tip ukly runs the course. people with get very sick from it sometimes. as you point out, a healthy person while it can be mumps can be bad in adults, a healthy person should get over it reasonably quickly. so you just got to make sure they don't become too dehydrated, take care of any other infection that's may develop. but typically people get through it. happy holidays you to. thank you for joining us. it's a pleasure. next, we're counting down the top ten health stories of the year. can you guess what they are? before that, we have the human factor. jamie grace grew up dreaming of becoming a singer/songwriter.
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♪ but before she could begin pursuing her career in music shshgs go smt news that put her dreams on hold. at the age of 12, jamie was diagnosed with tourette's syndrome. zbhi wanted to be a singer. i had no idea what tourettes syndrome was. all i found were clips of movies from the actors yelling and cursing. i remember seeing that at 11 years old and just crying my eyes out. and i spent the next years just being absolutely miserable. >> instead of letting her condition silence her, jamie turned to youtube. just two years after her diagnosis, jamie began posting videos of herself singing. ♪ >> she got the attention of record labels. and an online audience. >> i didn't blow up like justin bieber did. but i had a really cool response. >> now she's using her stage and her story to inspire others. ♪ i love the way you hold me >> jamie started her own foundation, i'm a fighter.
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it's a place where people dealing with illnesses and challenges can share stories and find support. >> thank you so much. >> it's daily store yifz fighters. a little kid with cancer or a hard-working father. it's been really cool to be able to build that community. i really hope that my songs connect with people and i really want them to encourage them.
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does he even work here? don't listen to the naysayer. take the comcast business speed test. get faster speeds or more savings, or we'll give you $150. comcast business. built for business. you know, it's hard to believe, but i've been a medical correspondent here at cnn for more than a decade, and i'll tell you, i'd billion hard pressed to remember a year that had more big breaking medical stories than this one, 2014, here's a look at our top 10. if you are what you eat, then what you probably are is confused. 2014 finding brought some transparency to our food. in february, the food and drug administration announced the changes to nutrition labels. it was the first overhaul in
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more than two decades. >> families deserve more, and better information about the food they eat. >> in late november, the fda ruled that establishments and self-prepared foods that have 20 or more locations have to post calorie counts, clearly and conspicuously on their menus, menu boards and displays. companies will now have november 2015 to comply. >> i will die upstairs in my bedroom that i share with my husband. with my mother and my husband by my side. >> in october, 29-year-old britany may in regard became the face of the right to die movement when she was diagnosed with an aggressive form of brain cancer and given just six months to live. she didn't want her family to watch her die in pain, so she moved to oregon to take advantage of the state's death with dignity law. this is not a third world country, this is a major city in west virginia. on january 9th, the chemical spill at freedom industries released thousands of gallons of
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toxic chemicals into the elk river and from there into charleston's water supply. >> don't wash with it, don't shower with it, don't drink it. >> hospitals in the area told cnn they didn't know of any illnesses related to the contaminati contamination, but the economic impact was real. >> heroin made a big comeback in 2014 as more people began using this as a cheaper alternative to costly prescription painkillers. >> use of an antidote is also on the rise. the drug is called narcan. you're watching it in action right now. it is now distributed to addicts, their friends and family, as well as first responders across the country. 2014 may go down as the year cigarettes went up in smoke. on february 5th, cvs announced they will stop selling tobacco products in all of its 7,800
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locations. they made good on the promise early. on september 3rd, pulled all tobacco products from the shelves. this would cost the company $2 billion a year, but tobacco is against it's moral and ethical principles a as health care company. >> anderson, we've been reporting on your program on these delays at these hospitals -- >> cnn spent more than a year in investigating delay in care at veteran hospitals. we exposed problems throughout the va, and cnn's reporting found that thousands of veterans across the country were waiting months, even years to see a doctor. cnn's reporting also uncovered va workers cooking the books to cover up long wait times. congressional hearings were held, and va secretary eric shinseki was forced to resign. president obama brought in a new secretary, bob mcdonald who has vowed to clean up the va. 7.1 million more people had health insurance this year under the patient protection and
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affordable care act, as you probably know, obamacare mandates that americans be covered by an insurance plan or pay a penalty. >> last year i had somewhat of an epiphany about weed. it can have real medicinal benefits. >> marijuana is better than all the pills in terms of treating. >> yeah. >> we saw families pack up and move across the country to get access to the only medicine that seemed to work for their children in states where medical marijuana is legal. two states, colorado and washington also legalized all forms of marijuana, including recreational use. >> on september 24th, the new jersey four-year-old died in his sleep. it was the first death health efficients could directly link to the virus which can cause severe respiratory symptoms. by the time it settled down, it had sickened hundreds of children in nearly all 50 states. >> without a doubt, the biggest health headline of the year, ebola. >> ebola. >> ebola. >> ebola. >> you've been exposed to ebola
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while in liberia. >> what began as a single case in guinea last december grown into a epidemic. in the first of its kind maneuver, two aid workers, dr. kent brantly and nancy writebol will medevaced. they survived. followed by others, thanks in part to the selfless work of doctors, nurses, and other health care workers who literally put their own lives on the line. as 2014 comes to a close, the world health organization tallies more than 6,000 deaths among roughly 18,000 sick. the outbreak in west africa, is far from over, but early stable vaccine trials are under way. and they do look promising. how many times over the years have i told you this? age is just a number? and therefore you're only as old as you feel. well now there's findings in scientific research to back that up. we needed 30 new hires for our call center.
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aye got some really good news for you before we wrap up the program today. but what you do with it, that's up to you. here's the headline, feeling younger than your actual age, might in fact lower your death rate according to a new study. it looked at data on ageing from about 6,500 people. average self-perceived age was 56.le years, ten years younger. >> when the researchers followed up over the next eight years, mortality rates were nearly cut in half for those who felt youngest as compared to those who felt oldest. the question is what can you do
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to keep yourself young? well, what they found was staying social, joining special groups meant for your age group, help keep your mind sharp and your body in motion. get physical, weight resistant exercises help combat natural muscle loss and just label the of cardio can in fact go a long way. as your tv doctor, i feel compelled to tell you to just simply take care. look after yourself. think about yourself. think about your loved ones, especially during what can be sometimes a very stressful holiday season. by the way, how old do i feel? 36. the scale next to me, older, but i want to know about you. how old do you feel? not how old are you? tweet me @dr.sanjaygupta. i want you to be happy, next weekend on sgmd, we're going to do the pursuit of happiness. denmark, the happiest country in the planet, we're going to
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uncover secrets there, and i'm going to show you scientific ways to up your satisfaction while multily lowering your risk of heart disease. but right now, more new day sunday with suzanne and victor. good morning everyone, i'm suzanne in for christie paul. >> and i'm victor black it's well. >> grief, anger, shock. >> yeah, that is what a lot of people are feeling in new york this morning after two police officers were gunned down in cold blood in broad daylight. look at the cover of the new york daily news. officer rafael ramos and wenjian liu were on patrol when a gunman braisingly approached them and opened fire. alexander field has the latest on the killing that has stunned the


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